Biotica Research Today, Volume 6, Issue 1 : 46-50. Doi : 10.54083/BioResToday/6.1.2024/46-50
Review Article

Published on : 31-Jan-2024

Upland Rice: A Water-Efficient Rice Production System in India

  • Ananya Gairola
  • Division of Agronomy, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (110 012), India
  • Vipin Kumar
  • Division of Agronomy, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (110 012), India
  • Sandesh Kumar
  • Division of Agronomy, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (110 012), India
  • Sanjeev Kumar
  • Dept. of Soil Science, Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, University of Agriculture Technology, Modipuram, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh (250 110), India
  • Anjali Patel
  • Division of Agronomy, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (110 012), India
  • Satendra Singh
  • Division of Agronomy, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (110 012), India

Abstract

The rainfed upland ecosystem, although often overlooked, plays a crucial role in sustaining India's impoverished population with its limited resources. This ecosystem spans across most states in the country, covering approximately 7 million hectares, with Eastern India having the highest coverage (>90%). In the typical upland ecosystem, rice is cultivated using direct seeding, employing minimal inputs such as fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides and herbicides. Upland rice farming is widely recognized for its crucial role in sustaining subsistence agriculture, catering to the nutritional needs of rainfed farming communities during the period of scarcity, particularly towards the end of September. Among all rice ecosystems, the upland environment stands out as the most diverse. Upland rice is cultivated through various methods, including permanent cultivation, block rotations, slash-and-burn (Jhum cultivation) and is established through broadcasting, seeding behind plough, or drilling seeds in small holes. It is grown both as a single crop and in combination with other cereals, oilseeds, or pulses. In specific regions like eastern Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, short-duration upland rice is grown under transplanted conditions. The harvest from upland rice not only serves as a crucial food source for impoverished farmers but also fulfills the feed requirements for cattle during times of scarcity. The majority of upland rice cultivation is concentrated in the Eastern Plateau and Hills Region, emphasizing subsistence farming. Addressing such challenges is crucial for maximizing the potential of upland rice cultivation and its role in sustaining rainfed agriculture in India.

Keywords

Ecosystem, Rainfed, Short-duration, Subsistence

No. of Views (111)

Full Article