Research Biotica, Volume 5, Issue 2 : 70-78. Doi : 10.54083/ResBio/5.2.2023/70-78
Review Article

Published on : 05-Jun-2023

Impact of Climate Change on Fruit Production: Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies in Northeast Himalayan Region

  • B. Thangjam
  • Dept. of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Tripura, Lembucherra, Agartala, Tripura (799 210), India
  • A. Thejangulie
  • ICAR-RC for NEH Region, Arunachal Centre, Basar, Arunachal Pradesh (791 101), India
  • T.K. Maity
  • Dept. of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Tripura, Lembucherra, Agartala, Tripura (799 210), India
  • K.S. Thingreingam Irenaeus
  • Dept. of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Tripura, Lembucherra, Agartala, Tripura (799 210), India
  • S.K. Mitra
  • Section Tropical and Subtropical Fruits, ISHS (Belgium), Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal (741 235), India
  • T. Bhattacharjee
  • Dept. of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Tripura, Lembucherra, Agartala, Tripura (799 210), India

Abstract

Numerous horticulture crops, both well-known and less well-known underutilized fruit crops native to this region, are grown in abundance in the north-eastern Himalayan region. If grown to their full capacity, these crops will produce significant revenue and contribute to the local economy. There is however, a decrease in their availability even before being fully exploited due to losses resulting from many factors including climate change and related variability. The primary consequence of climate change, among many others, is the changes in the agro-ecological region that are observable in some places where there is the replacement of native fruits, many of which originated at higher elevations, with low chilling-required fruits. In the Ukhrul district of Manipur (Northeast India), the abundance of many local temperate crops of the Prunus species such as peaches, plums, cherries, pears, bird cherry (Prunus nepalensis) and others like walnut, wild apple (Docynia indica), Pyrus pashiaMyrica spp., Rhus semialatusRubus spp., Eleagnus spp., Elaeocarpus floribundusSpondias axillarisetc. are reduced and being replaced by low chilling requiring crops like kiwi, avocado, low chilling apples (Anna, Golden Dorsett, HRMN 99) and area under these crops particularly kiwi is increasing. In household gardens at higher altitudes, tropical fruits like mango, banana and guava are now thriving; in the past, the harsh winter frosts made it impossible even for the seedlings to survive. Despite employing rootstocks that are more resistant to higher temperature, kiwi is replacing the apple-growing regions in the foothills of Bomdila and Dirang in Arunachal Pradesh, since the requisite quality is not achieved.

Keywords

Agro-ecological shift, Climate change, Fruits, Low chilling

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